# Step by step guide to understanding Proof of Stake consensus algorithm

Step by step guide to understanding Proof of Stake consensus algorithm

## Introduction to Proof of Stake

Proof of Stake is a consensus algorithm used in blockchain networks that helps to validate transactions and create new blocks in a secure and decentralized manner. Unlike Proof of Work that relies on solving complex mathematical equations, PoS algorithm uses a more energy-efficient method that requires validators to hold a certain amount of cryptocurrency as stake to participate in block creation and validation.

### What is Proof of Stake?

Proof of Stake is a consensus mechanism that allows validators to create new blocks and validate transactions on a blockchain network based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold as stake. Validators with a higher stake are more likely to be chosen to validate transactions and create new blocks, hence, they earn rewards for their participation.

### Difference between Proof of Work and Proof of Stake

Proof of Work algorithm is the most commonly used consensus mechanism that relies on computational power to validate transactions and create new blocks. However, PoW is energy-intensive and can be slow and expensive. On the other hand, Proof of Stake uses validators instead of miners to participate in block creation and validation. Validators are chosen based on the amount of cryptocurrency they hold as stake, and the algorithm is less energy-intensive and faster compared to PoW.

## How Proof of Stake Works

Proof of Stake (PoS) is an alternative consensus algorithm to Proof of Work (PoW) that allows for more energy-efficient network validation. With PoS, validators are required to put up a stake (hence the name) of the cryptocurrency in order to participate in the network’s validation. This stake is used as collateral and the validator is financially penalized if they are caught maliciously validating fraudulent transactions.

### Staking and Validators

Staking is the process of putting a stake (or collateral) of a cryptocurrency in order to validate transactions in the network. Validators are participants in the network that have staked their cryptocurrency and have been chosen to validate transactions. Validators are selected randomly and given the opportunity to validate transactions based on the amount of cryptocurrency they’ve staked.

### How Block Creation Works in PoS

Unlike PoW, where miners compete to solve a complex mathematical problem to validate transactions, PoS block validators are chosen randomly to generate new blocks. The chosen validator must then create a new block with transactions and broadcast it to the network. Other validators would then check the validity of the block before adding it to the blockchain. Once validated, the validator receives reward in the form of transaction fees and newly minted cryptocurrency.

## Advantages of Proof of Stake

The Proof of Stake (PoS) consensus algorithm has gained immense popularity due to its advantages over the Proof of Work (PoW) algorithm. Let’s take a closer look at the benefits of the PoS algorithm.

### Energy Efficiency

One of the biggest advantages of PoS over PoW is its energy efficiency. In a PoS system, nodes do not have to compete against each other to solve complex mathematical problems, which require a significant amount of computational power and energy consumption. Instead, nodes are selected to validate transactions based on the number of tokens they hold. This means that energy requirements in PoS are much lower than in PoW, making it more environmentally friendly.

### Higher Security

PoS offers a higher level of security than PoW. In a PoW system, a 51% attack can occur when a single entity controls more than half of the computational power of the network. However, in PoS, a similar attack is much more difficult to carry out since it would require a single entity to own more than 51% of the total token supply, which would make it very expensive and impractical to execute. Hence, PoS provides a higher level of security for the network.

### Decentralized Governance

In a PoS system, token holders are responsible for the governance of the network. They have the power to approve or reject proposals that can impact the network, such as changes to the protocol or allocation of resources. This gives token holders a more significant say in how the network operates, creating a decentralized governance structure. This results in a more democratic and equitable network than the PoW system, where mining pools or individual miners hold significant power in the network.

## Implementations of Proof of Stake

Proof of Stake has become an increasingly popular consensus algorithm among blockchain networks. Here are some of the most notable implementations of Proof of Stake:

### Ethereum’s Casper Protocol

Ethereum is planning to shift from Proof of Work to Proof of Stake through the implementation of the Casper Protocol. Casper will introduce a hybrid consensus mechanism that combines PoW and PoS to ensure a smooth transition to a fully decentralized PoS system. Casper’s PoS mechanism will be based on staking ETH, and ETH holders who participate in staking will receive rewards for maintaining the network.

### Cardano’s Ouroboros Protocol

Cardano is a blockchain platform that uses the Ouroboros PoS protocol. Ouroboros divides the network into epochs, with each epoch consisting of several slots. A stakeholder can become a slot leader by staking their ADA, and slot leaders are then responsible for creating blocks during their assigned slot. Ouroboros has been touted as a highly energy-efficient and secure way of maintaining consensus.

### Tezos’ Liquid Proof of Stake

Tezos is a self-amending blockchain platform that uses the Liquid PoS protocol. Tezos’ PoS mechanism allows token holders to participate in the governance of the network by voting on proposed changes to the protocol. Token holders can also delegate their staked tokens to a validator, who will create blocks on their behalf and distribute rewards accordingly. Liquid PoS is designed to promote decentralization and enable efficient governance in the Tezos ecosystem.